What is fiber optic cable? Design and Application of fiber optic cable

1. What is fiber optic cable?

Fiber optic cable is known as a telecommunication cable made of glass or plastic material and using light to transmit signals at required distances.

The diameter of the transparent fiberglass is quite small as a single hair, thin and long. All these filaments are arranged in a bundle to make up the fiber optic cable. Optical cable is capable of transmitting signals over very long distances.

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What is fiber optic cable?

Unlike conventional copper cables that transmit electrical signals that are susceptible to interference, fiber-optic cables minimize noise with a high line rate allowing the signal to be transmitted further.

2. Optical fiber structure like?

The structure of the fiber optic cable consists of a central wire made of fiberglass or plastic that has been refined by manufacturers to allow the signal to transmit the light signals as far as possible. Optical fibers are coated with a lining to reflect the signals well.

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The structure of fiber optic cables

Structure of fiber optic cable includes the following main parts:

• Core: The reflective center of the optical fiber where light passes through.

• Cladding: External optical material encapsulates the core that reflects light back into the core.

• Buffer coating: The flexible outer coating is responsible for protecting the fibers from damage and moisture.

• Jacket: Hundreds or thousands of fibers are placed in bundles called optical fibers. These bundles are protected by a cable coating called the Jacket.

Besides, fiber optic cables are classified into two main categories:


• Multimode stepped index (step extraction): Large core (100 microns), the light pulses can move in many different paths in the core: straight, zic zac,… at destination will receive individual beams Therefore, the pulse is easily distorted.

• Multimode graded index (continuous extraction): The core has a refractive index decreasing from the inside to the shell. Near-axis rays are transmitted more slowly than rays near the shell. The rays travel in curves instead of zigzagging. The beams are at the convergence point, thus minimizing pulse distortion.

Single mode (single mode): Small core (10 micro metres or less), the coefficient of change of refraction varies from core to shell less than multimode. The rays travel in an axial parallel direction. The received pulses are well focused, with almost no distortion.

3. Important application of fiber optic cable in practice

Multimode fiber optic cable is used for signal transmission over short distances, including:

Step index – For short distances, common in internal spotlights.

Graded index – Commonly used in LAN systems.

Single mode – Used for projects with distances of thousands of km, popular in telephone networks, cable TV networks.

Advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable compared to copper cable:


Cost savings – Fiber optic cable has lower cost compared to coax cable.

Thinner – Optical cables have a smaller diameter design than copper cables.

Higher load capacity – Because optical fibers are designed to be thinner than copper cables, more fibers can be bundled with a given diameter than copper cables. That design allows multiple channels to pass through your cable.

Less signal attenuation – Less signal is lost in fiber optic cables than in copper cables.

Light signal – Unlike the electrical signal in copper cable, the light signal from optical fiber does not interfere with other fibers in the same cable. This results in better signal quality.

Use less power – Because the signal in fiber optic cable is less reduced, the generator can use a lower power source instead of the high voltage generator used in copper cable.

Digital Signal – The optical cable is ideal for transmitting digital information that is especially useful in computer networks.

No fire – As there is no electricity through the fiber optic cable, so there is almost no danger of fire.


• Cable connection is difficult, requires expertise, the cable is as straight as possible

• The cost of welding and connecting the terminals is usually higher than that of copper cable.

With a series of outstanding advantages, fiber optic cables are increasingly dominating the market with dense applications on national networks as well as small networks.

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Above are some basic information about fiber optic cable you should know. If you are in need of consulting and supporting network connection solutions and cable solutions, please contact U&ME right away!



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